This paper reviews in detail Lu Xun’s translation of science fiction when studying in Japan, and makes farther analysis. At first, by describing the historical details of the publication of Lu Xun’s translation works of science fiction, and close reading of the texts, the paper discusses Lu Xun’s early literary ideas and social thoughts embodied in the translating activities. In the second part, the paper analyzes Lu Xun’s view of science fiction on the basis of his “Preface to From the Earth to the Moon.” In conjunction with Lu Xun’s life experience, the third part points out the main factors that impelled him to translate and introduce science fiction. In conclusion, this paper advanced some critical comments on Lu Xun’s translation of science fiction, plus some issues to be explored.